frq's we have outlined, and 4 that I will choose from for tomorrow.
2005 1,2, 3
2007 1, 2, 3
2008-4. “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
-Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, 1870
Despite the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment, voter turnout among African American citizens was very low throughout the first half of the twentieth century.
Over the past 50 years, civil rights policies have changed substantially, along with a significant increase in African American voter turnout.
a. Explain how two measures taken by some states prior to the1960s affected voter turnout among African Americans.
b. Facing discrimination at the voting booth, many African American citizens turned to alternative forms of political participation. Describe two alternative forms of participation that helped bring about changes in civil rights policies.
c. Choose one of the forms of participation you described in (b) and explain why it was effective in changing civil rights policies.
2006-4 The framers of the United States Constitution created a legislative system that is bicameral. However, it is not just bicameral; the framers also established two houses of distinctly different character and authority.
1. Discuss two reasons why the framers created a bicameral legislature.
2. Identify one power unique to the House of Representatives and explain why the framers gave the House that power.
3. Identify one power unique to the Senate and explain why the framers gave the Senate that power.
2005-3 Initially, the U.S. Constitution did little to protect citizens from actions of the states. In the 20th Century, the Supreme Court interpreted the Constitution to protect the rights of citizens from state governments in a process referred to as incorporation.
Define selective incorporation.
For two of the following, explain how each has been incorporated. Each of your explanations must be based on a specific and relevant Supreme Court decision:
-Rights of criminal defendants
2007-2 The First Amendment includes two clauses relating to the freedom of religion.
a. Select one of the following cases and identify the First Amendment clause upon which the United States Supreme Court based its decision.
- Engel v. Vitale (school prayer)
- Lemon v. Kurtzman (state funding for private religious schools)
b. Describe the Supreme Court’s decision in the cases that you selected in a.
c. Select one of the following cases and identify the First Amendment clause upon which the United States Supreme Court based its decision.
- Reynolds v. United States (polygamy)
- Oregon v. Smith (drug use in religious ceremonies)
- Describe the Supreme Court’s decision in the cases that you selected in c.
e. Many of these decisions have caused controversy in the United States. Describe two ways in which other political institutions might limit the impact of Supreme Court decisions.